I asked my friends if they knew of any randomly generated art projects, and someone brought a 15-112 project to my attention. Lingdong Huang (a student at Carnegie Mellon) created a procedurally generated world for a side scroll game called Hermit. He created beautiful three-dimensional landscapes that interact with one another and have some sort of depth.
If I am understanding it correctly, the artist coded a few shapes, and then randomly generated the rest of the pictures. So there are millions of different random combinations of shapes to create the tree, the ground, and the things the character and his horse can do.
This is the video that Lingdong Huang posted for his project. It is very dramatic.