# Arrows in computing

Modern digital computers were originally developed to simplify, speed up, and remove sources of error from relatively simple, repetitive mathematical operations. (Reductively: engineers were getting frustrated having to spend hours repeatedly solving particular classes of mathematical problems, and figured there must have been some way of mechanizing the process.) Some of the first electronic computers were, fundamentally, no more than a sort of calculator which could remember and refer back to prior results to use in future calculations in a carefully predefined way. At this point in their history, computers were simple, transparent, and “special-purpose,” in the sense that they were designed specifically to solve particular well-defined problems. For instance, an early computer would multiply two complex numbers (which exist in the form a+bi, where i is the imaginary number which is the square root of –1) and return the result; it could do nothing else.

At the early stages of development, the operation of the computing machine may not have been trivially simple, insofar as an uninitiated person may not have been able to intuit their way into getting an answer. But once the general rule of operation was explained to them, a typical user would have been able to begin using the machine quickly, and understand the underlying principle easily enough. In the case of the complex number adding machine referred to above, the user might “dial in” four total values representing a and b from two different complex numbers, press a button, and wait for 30 seconds while the machine hummed along, finally turning numbered rotors to represent the mathematical product.

A great early insight, arrived at in the 1830s but not realized in practice until a century later, profoundly changed the field of computer science. Moving it far beyond these “special-purpose” devices. Charles Babbage, working with Ada, the Countess of Lovelace, developed a plan for an Analytical Engine, a machine which could not only perform fixed mathematical operations but also was “programmable”—in other words, it would be able to be modified on the fly to perform different functions, in different orders. It’s difficult to overstate the importance of this leap from a fixed-use mathematical solving machine to one which can be coerced (programmed) to produce different sorts of outcomes from the same input.

Lady Lovelace also contributed enormously to the field with her insight that a computer “might act upon other things besides number,” which was the first known conceptualizing of the expansion of a computer’s power beyond the merely mathematically computational. With this, she allowed for an entirely different class of “arrows” to come into being; if non-numerical entities could be represented, and calculated, stored, etc., then the whole world may potentially be the arrow that any particular piece of a computer’s memory points towards.

## Compilers

At the same time that the ability to program computers introduced a new era of possibility, it also brought with it enormous complexity. Remapping the logical operations of a computer was a very difficult and error-prone task; fundamentally, the computer programmer needed a precise and intimate understanding of the computer’s method of operation to be able to write instructions for it which would result in a successful outcome. Early computer instructions, furthermore, were written directly in binary, which certainly does not lend itself to easy understanding or legibility. Generally, a program written to run on one model of computer would likely not run on a different one because of underlying differences in hardware.

In the nineteen fifties, people began to develop compilers (the coinage is from Grace Hopper, a computer pioneer), which were computer programs which could take instructions written by people in a fairly generic form and convert them into programs that would actually run on different pieces of computer hardware. The compiler’s role is to interpret a piece of software and correctly interpret the author’s intent, capturing it in a set of formal instructions applicable to a particular type of hardware.

A compiler represents a sort of indirection (or arrow) which points from the programmer’s language to the “machine code” which will actually be executed by the computer. As “higher-level” computer languages were developed, the gap between the programmer’s original instructions and the underlying machine code grew. Instead of writing the fairly confusing  `MOVL \$-0x8(%rpb), 0x4A`, a programmer might now be able to write something more legible like `x = 74;` in both cases, the purpose is to set a variable to have the value of 74.

There are more layers here, though. Without entering too much technical detail, it should be sufficient to note that the actual sequence of going from a programmer’s instruction to an underlying behavior in the computer is not so simple as programmer–compiler–machine code; there are other intermediate steps involving further indirection, “linking,” and interpretation along the way. Once the instructions are in machine code, there is still interpretation done by the microcontroller, using yet another type of code called “microcode,” which provides further indirection when the code actually runs.

## An example from the Arduino

If you wish to blink an LED on pin 13 of the Arduino, which is the typical point of entry to the hardware platform for new learners, you might run this bit of code:

```void setup(){
pinMode(13, OUTPUT);
}

void loop(){
digitalWrite(13, HIGH);
delay(1000);
digitalWrite(13, LOW);
delay(1000);
}```

This is written in C. But what does the Arduino actually run? A generated hexadecimal file, which looks like this:

```:100230000FB60F9211242F933F938F939F93AF93F9
:10024000BF938091010190910201A0910301B091AF
:1002500004013091000123E0230F2D3720F4019693
:10026000A11DB11D05C026E8230F0296A11DB11DD9
:10027000209300018093010190930201A093030158```

These are lines 36 to 40 of the code; it is 60 lines long. Here we have seen the two endpoints of the process, from highest-level to lowest-level. To see the indirection and reinterpretation in the midst of them we might examine something as simple as `digitalWrite()`, the command which turns a pin’s electrical output on or off. When the user asks the Arduino “integrated development environment” (IDE) to push their code to the board, it goes through many sequential steps, and one of them is finding and interpreting the definition of `digitalWrite()`, which is:

```void digitalWrite(uint8_t pin, uint8_t val) {
uint8_t timer = digitalPinToTimer(pin);
uint8_t port = digitalPinToPort(pin);
volatile uint8_t *out;

if (port == NOT_A_PIN) return;
// If the pin that support PWM output, we need to turn it off
// before doing a digital write.
if (timer != NOT_ON_TIMER) turnOffPWM(timer);
out = portOutputRegister(port);
uint8_t oldSREG = SREG;
cli();

if (val == LOW) {
*out &= ~bit;
} else {
*out |= bit;
}

SREG = oldSREG;
}```

If this definition is longer and more complex than we might expect, it at least illustrates that the command is simply an on/off switch. And it itself rests on many other definitions; `NOT_A_PIN`, for instance, is just a variable storing the number 0. `HIGH`, similarly, is merely a word pointing to the number 1. And ultimately every time any number is stored or referred to on a computer, it itself is simply a series of tiny transistors which are either on or off. Abstractions built upon abstractions built upon abstractions!

To peek into another layer: the first few lines of the Arduino’s assembler version of the `digitalWrite()` command, for instance, look like this:

```234: 56 ea       ldi r21, 0xA6 ; 166
236: e5 2e       mov r14, r21
238: 50 e0       ldi r21, 0x00 ; 0
23a: f5 2e       mov r15, r21```

This is the penultimate level of proximity to the hardware; these assembly code instructions are (in a slightly simplified sense) turned into a part of the hexadecimal machine code shown earlier. Any microcontroller has a list of “opcodes,” i.e. operation codes, particular to it. These are often represented as three- or four-letter acronyms to help the human programmers who are using them, but in yet another indirection, the opcodes written in letters are themselves referring to a purely numerical value; for instance, `ADD` (“add without carry,” a basic process of addition) is represented by opcode 000011. The ATMega328 has a list of about 100 such codes that will work on that hardware.

# Emergent complexity

Obviously computers are capable of undertaking truly complex tasks at high speed. But underlyingly, the complexity and behavior they exhibit is composed entirely of a carefully choreographed interplay of many, many small, simple elements of information, called bits. Each little transistor, following a well-defined rule of electrical behavior, can be said to be a very small cog in a very large machine (for instance, the Atmel chip driving the Arduino Uno has perhaps a million or so).

In the natural world there are myriad examples of individual decision making elements working together in such a way that the complexity of the whole is significantly greater than the parts combined. Consider the flocking behavior of birds or fish; each animal can be modeled as following a simple set of rules regarding their own movement with respect to their peers. When the whole group follows such a set of rules, incredible larger-scale complexity emerges.

Order can emerge from the “decisions” or behaviors of small individually mobile elements in many cases, even when there is seemingly no decision-making life present; regular, periodic sand waves on a beach are merely the result of countless grains which have fallen into a large-scale order, a result of their individual and collective response to wind patterns. On a larger scale, given the right conditions, sand will form into dunes that are hundreds of feet tall.

In addition to the many naturally-occurring examples, we may contrive artificial systems which explore the results of many individually-acting elements sharing a common environment. For one, it’s remarkable how much a “flock” of artificial animals, driven by just three parameters (cohesion, alignment, and separation), bears at least strong superficial similarity to the movement of their natural analogs. A different sort of system can be modeled where each member of a two-dimensional grid has some awareness of the cells around it, and responds accordingly to them; this was explored most famously by John Conway, in his Game of Life.

It is tempting, in any case, to relate the complex behavior of many small individual elements to our own brains, which are, after all, composed merely of many, many individual neurons, attached to each other in a complex web from which our consciousness arises.

# Assignment

Build a

which

one or more of this unit’s concepts of interest:

• The layers of direction and indirection used to help humans write machine-processable instructions (such as a program compiler which reads a C program and converts it into assembly language);
• The layering of abstraction upon abstraction as a timesaver and/or confounder and/or transformative force; or
• The emergence of complex macro-level effects from many individually functioning simple micro elements that behave in concert.

The piece should have a physical manifestation, though it is acceptable for much of the creative work to be developed in software.  It is also acceptable for the piece to be purely mechanical—after all the first computers were simply mechanisms.

Also consider…

• Audience: Who is this piece for?
• Site specificity: Where will the piece live and why? Will your piece be static or roaming?
• Performance: Consider how performance relates to the interactivity of your piece. Is your piece a solo performance, collaboration, and/or does it rely on audience interactivity to function (the performance of the machine)?
• Materials: What materials will you use to build your piece? Why those materials and not others? How do your material choice impact the meaning of your project?
• Continuation: If you are interested in building on your Gates or Flow project, you are welcome to do so! Of course, this new version must showcase a significant expansion, reinterpretation, or other substantial change relating to the animating ideas of this unit.

## Materials needs

We are able to allocate course budget for purchasing materials for your project needs; please fill out our Course Purchase Request Form as soon as you have certainty about what material(s) you’ll need so that we can place orders with plenty of lead time!

# Important Dates

## Monday, Nov 16 – Homework & Virtual tour of Trevor Paglen’s Opposing Geometries exhibition with CMoA curator, Taylor Fisch

If you are in Pittsburgh and feel safe going to the Carnegie Museum of Art, please visit the Opposing Geometries exhibit, a part of the Mirror with a Memory series, before Taylor joins us for class on Monday.  Your student  ID  will get you in for free. CMoA safety protocols.

• Your Homework: Whether or not you are in Pittsburgh, learn more about Paglen’s work and complete this assignment by the beginning of class on Monday, November 16.

## Wednesday, November 18 – Two Project Ideas are Due

Prepare two distinct project ideas to turn in and discuss.

Each of your project ideas should include:

1. A block diagram showing the flow of data through your system. This is an accounting of all inputs, computational steps, and outputs. Open-source drawing software from diagrams.net can be used like so:

Sample of using diagrams.net software. Go to the course Google Drive folder for the block_diagram.drawio file shown here (useful as an editable template for making your own).

You may also draw a figure like this by hand, or in other software of your choosing. Regardless of how you draw the figure, it should include:

1. All of your system’s inputs on the left side of the drawing, connected by arrows to:
2. Any/all of your system’s computational steps in the middle, connected by arrows to:
3. All of your system’s outputs on the right.
2. A page-length (~300 word) narrative description addressing:
1. Intended interaction mode by members of the public and/or performers and/or yourself (whatever is appropriate to the piece)
2. Intended siting (where will it live and how will it be installed?)
3. Intended experience for the audience
4. Theoretical underpinnings (e.g. what led you to this idea, what about it intrigues you, etc.)
5. Relevance to you and your practice
3.  A representative drawing of your proposed build (drawings need not be high-fidelity; sketches are certainly fine). Consider illustrating how your piece will live in context and not just what the objects will look like. This will help us understand scale and spatial concerns.
4. Basic list of needed materials as well as sources (on or off campus) for those materials (this need not be a finalized purchase list!)

To share these ideas with us, make a new post on the course site (this site); use the category “Ideation,” which is a sub-category of “Project No. 3.” At the bottom of your post, under “Content Permissions,” select “Instructor” as the role who is able to view this post (this way, the initial post will be visible to Heidi and Zach but nobody else).

We will review your proposals with you individually in class. We will also provide you with written feedback.

## Monday, November 23 – Proof of Concept  Demo & Lo-fi Maquette Presentation

You will present a proof of concept tech demo and lo-fi maquette of your project to the class. It need not be high-fidelity. There is a lot of different thinking in the design world about what “prototyping” means. Designer and academic Graham Pullin, in his excellent Design Meets Disability (2011), helpfully outlines a few different approaches:

• looks-like prototype: an appearance model for form, color, materials, etc.
• works-like prototype: an engineering prototype for electronics and electromechanical build, etc.
• behaves-like prototype: an experience prototype for interactions. It may have tethers instead of being wireless, or be built larger than the proposed final size, but the fundamental user interactions are well-modeled. (p. 138)

For this assignment, you will be combining looks, works, and behaves-like prototype approaches. This piece must shows clear progress towards your final goal. Use this time to focus on the interactive and aesthetic aspects of the project.

Requirements:

• A maquette that represents the physical embodiment/fabrication of the envisioned final project.
• A first pass at the electronics that produces the core interactivity (preferably this is built out physically, but it can be mocked-up in Tinkercad).
• A thorough materials list:
• Things we have available on campus
• Those that need to have ordered

In class, we will discuss the prototypes. This deadline is meant to help you prepare to deliver a polished finished project two weeks later.

Submit your maquette by adding it to your process blog documentation and sharing the URL of this post to Canvas via this assignment.

## Monday, Nov 30 – Guest Artist, Taeyoon Choi + Studio Visits

Taeyoon Choi is an artist and educator based in Seoul and New York. He explores the poetics in science, technology, society, and human relations. He works with computer programming, drawing, and writing, oftentimes in collaboration with fellow artists, experts and community members. He believes in the intersectionalities of art, activism, education and works on disability-rights, environmental justice and anti-racism. He co-founded School for Poetic Computation in 2013 where he continues to organize and teach experimental classes. Through his diverse practices, he seeks a sense of gentleness, magnanimity, justice, and solidarity, and intellectual kinship.

• Prepare a short presentation of your work and process
• We recommend no less than five slides containing text, video, audio, and photographs. This is a moment to get outside feedback from an artist who centers their work in the intersection of art and technology.
• Turn in your slides here.

## Wednesday, December 9 – 100% Complete Critique

You will present your projects for 10 minutes with an additional 10 minutes for critique. Presentations are a combination of Zoom screen-shared Google Slides and a tour of the objects in your space. Your presentations should address the following:

• Title
• Project Statement / Artist Statement
• Individual physically-built projects (shared via Zoom, you may also insert a few images/movies in your presentation).

• Challenges along the way, interesting findings, and/or lessons you’d like to share.

## Monday, December 14 – Documentation is Due at 10:00 p.m.

### What to submit (documentation content requirements)

If you have any questions about the submissions requirements, or run into technical problems, be sure to contact either Heidi or Zach.

Each documentation submission must consist of at least:

• A “featured image” that is a good overall view of the project. This image should be one of the “well-shot” images described below, or a cropped subset of one of them.
• The project title.
• Careful and well-shot images of the final project. Take these using IDeATe’s PhotoZone backdrop and lighting for an especially easy professional look, or shoot out in the field if you prefer. The DSLR photography guide provides a lot of pointers.
Submit at least seven shots and these must include:
1. Overall photo for proportion and scale
2. Detail photo of any part that you’d like to highlight (up to 3)
3. Gif or gifv or little .mov that shows the piece working (i.e. interacting with an input(s) and the output(s) that are derived.)
• Simple narrative description of the thing and usual operation of the thing—the type of plain and straightforward description that you might write in a letter to a child to explain what you had made. Free of judgment and totally literal and straightforward. Try to use as little technical language as possible. (E.g. “A white plastic box has a switch on the top side. When he user turns it on, a green LED flashes five times showing that the system is ready. A small white flag waves back and forth.”) For a study in the art of using simple language, see Randall Munroe’s wonderful Up Goer Five. To use a simple-language filter yourself, try the Up-Goer Five text editor.
• Five progress images, each of which could be a step or misstep that happened along the development process, and each with at least a sentence or two caption. These images may capture decision points, especially interesting or illustrative mistakes, or other mileposts along the way. The idea is that these medium-quality images (though good pictures work too) are taken along the way to document progress. Sometimes you might understand these as being moments-that-matter only in retrospect! The safe route, therefore, is to snap lots of photos as you go along for later review.
• Process Reflection pertaining to process and outcome. For instance, what was easy, what was hard, what did you learn? What little tweak, in retrospect, would’ve changed the direction entirely? This is an opportunity for you to reflect on your creative and technical growth through the project, and think about what growth you want to aim for next. This shouldn’t be a recital of your process, but rather a meaningful consideration of what you experienced during the creation of your piece, 2–4 paragraphs in length.
• Code submission (if using Arduino), embedded into the project page, and optionally also with a Github or other version control service public-facing link. Your code should be reasonably commented throughout so that people other than you (the author) can better understand it. You don’t need to explain every single line—that would be overkill—but leave useful notes in a reasonable measure. Write a comment block at the top of the code including:
• the project title,
• a description (short or long) of what the code does,
• any description of pin mapping that would be useful to somebody else trying to recreate your work,
• appropriate credit to any other person’s/project’s code that you incorporated into your project, and
• (optionally) a license notice (i.e. copyright, CC BY-SA 4.0, the MIT License, release it to the public domain, or just follow your heart). If you have written code that you wish to keep strictly proprietary for any reason, please speak with the instructor about an exception to this documentation requirement.

### How to submit (WordPress instructions)

All documentation is submitted by making a post on the course site.

• Make a post with the title in the format “Project no. 3: Your Project’s Name Here.” On the right side of the page where you compose your post, under “Categories” select “Project no. 3.”
• Upload your images at a reasonably high resolution; ~1000 pixels of width is the lower boundary of what you should aim for. After adding an image to the post, click on it in the editor, click on the pencil icon to get to its Image Details popup, and select Size: large or Size: original.
• You can also use the Image Details menu to add a caption to an image.