Bibliography of Soft Art (S23)

The readings are a centerpiece of the course. We will together be exploring the soft robotics and art literature. Following are some suggested starting points for literature searches in the arts. The Guide to Library Resources page addresses more details of the literature search process.

The sources are categorized in the following sections with brief descriptions. The citations in the descriptions link further below to the full bibliographic references. A few papers relate to the Videos of Related Work.

The bibliographies from previous course iterations are archived:

Surveys and Overviews of Soft Robotic Art

  • Constructing Soft Robot Aesthetics. Art, Sensation, and Materiality in Practice [A23] (2019). A PhD thesis analyzing the potential for soft robotics, architecture, and sculpture to inform each other, with discussion of many relevant references.

Kinetic Soft Sculpture

Kinetic works using non-textile soft materials.

Soft Architecture

Research and projects involving soft materials in architecture.

Soft Sculpture

Non-kinetic works using silicone and other non-textile soft materials.

Exercise 4 Sources

[A37] [A15] [A16] [A17] [A27] [A1] [A19] [A32] [A22] [A35] [A5] [A10] [A14] [A30] [A13] [A2] [A34] [A3] [A6] [A4] [A36] [A18]

Exercise 5 Sources

[A8] [A12] [R3] [R4] [R5] [A20] [A31] [R13] [R14] [A33] [A11] [R17] [A9] [A21] [A24] [A25] [A26] [R38] [A29] [R42] [R47] [A7] [R71] [R76] [R75] [A28]

Art References

Cited References


Adaptive Pneumatic Shelters | Achimmenges.Net. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


Cilllia. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


Klaus Pinter | Domaine de Chaumont-sur-Loire. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


ASLAK SIIMES. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


JONAS JØRGENSEN. URL: (visited on 2022-02-02).


ObjectWithBehaviour. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


Ernesto Neto - Mentre niente accade / While nothing happens | MACRO Asilo. 2008. URL: (visited on 2023-02-06).


Al Bahr Towers by AHR. February 2014. URL: (visited on 2023-02-06).


Remaking “Sharing Human Technology with Plants” with HEXA. September 2017. URL: (visited on 2023-02-06).


Another Generosity - Lundén Architecture Company. July 2018. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


Elowan: A plant-robot hybrid — MIT Media Lab. 2018. URL: (visited on 2023-02-06).


Unsupervised — Machine Hallucinations — MoMA. November 2022. URL: (visited on 2023-02-06).


Rima Sabina Aouf. Aeromorph inflatables fold themselves from flat sheets into complex origami. January 2017. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


Chico MacMurtrie / ARW. Sixteen Birds. August 2016. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


Ingrid Bachmann. Pelt (bestiary). URL: (visited on 2022-01-10).


Ece Polen Budak, Onur Zirhli, Adam A. Stokes, and Ozge Akbulut. The Breathing Wall (BRALL)—Triggering Life (in)Animate Surfaces. Leonardo, 49(2):162–163, April 2016. doi:10.1162/LEON_a_01199.


Kyung Yun Choi and Hiroshi Ishii. Therms-Up!: DIY Inflatables and Interactive Materials by Upcycling Wasted Thermoplastic Bags. In Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction, TEI '21, 1–8. New York, NY, USA, February 2021. Association for Computing Machinery. doi:10.1145/3430524.3442457.


Ami Dolling. Katharina Vones: Jewellery Artist. January 2014. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


Mateo Fernandez. Searching for a pulse. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


Christian G. The Underwater Art Installations Preserving Our Marine Life. December 2018. URL: (visited on 2023-02-06).


A.T. Jones and R.W. Welsford. Artificial reefs in British Columbia, Canada. In Oceans '97. MTS/IEEE Conference Proceedings, volume 1, 415–418 vol.1. October 1997. doi:10.1109/OCEANS.1997.634399.


Jonas Jørgensen. Leveraging morphological computation for expressive movement generation in a soft robotic artwork. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Movement Computing, MOCO '17, 1–4. New York, NY, USA, June 2017. Association for Computing Machinery. doi:10.1145/3077981.3078029.


Jonas Jørgensen. Constructing Soft Robot Aesthetics. Art, Sensation, and Materiality in Practice. PhD thesis, IT University of Copenhagen, May 2019.


Jenny Kendler. Lounging Through the Flood. 2019. URL: (visited on 2023-02-06).


Mi-jin Kim, Baek-gyeom Kim, Je-sung Koh, and Hwang Yi. Flexural biomimetic responsive building façade using a hybrid soft robot actuator and fabric membrane. Automation in Construction, 145:104660, January 2023. doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2022.104660.


Amanda Lauren. Egg Chairs: The Furniture Trend That Never Cracks. September 2019. URL: (visited on 2023-02-06).


Hannah Rose Mendoza. Soft Robotics Project Exo-Biote 3D Prints Living Movement. September 2015. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


Hongman Wang, Zhisen Zhu, He Jin, Rui Wei, Lei Bi, and Wenling Zhang. Magnetic soft robots: Design, actuation, and function. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 922:166219, November 2022. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2022.166219.


Behance. Umbrella. 2020. URL: (visited on 2023-02-06).


CNET. How this artist turns magnets into crazy shapes (ferrofluid) 💀. October 2021. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


Deeplocal. Google Flowers. September 2022. URL: (visited on 2023-02-06).


GalateaCarvedPearls. Blossom : Shape Memory metal Jewelry by Galatea. September 2017. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


Harpreet Sareen. Elowan: A Plant-Robot Hybrid. November 2018. URL: (visited on 2023-02-06).


Quartz. MIT's self-folding origami technology. December 2016. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


Robotis mollis. Tales of C. January 2018. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


Tiao Tiao. Soft Robot based on Honeycomb Pneumatic Networks. August 2016. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).


WTGvideos. Pelt (Bestiary) - Ingrid Bachmann. March 2013. URL: (visited on 2023-02-01).